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Frequently Asked Questions

  • Check the availability of your desired domain name: You can check if your desired domain name is available in Indian languages by visiting the website of the National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI) or any accredited registrar that offers Indian language domains.
  • Choose a registrar: Once you have identified an available domain name, you need to choose a registrar that offers Indian language domains. NIXI provides a list of accredited registrars on its website that offer Indian language domains.
  • Provide the necessary information: You will need to provide your personal and contact information, as well as the desired domain name and the language/script in which it is written. You may also need to provide additional documentation or verification for Indian language domains.
  • Complete the registration process: Once you have provided the necessary information, you can complete the registration process through the registrar's website. You may need to pay a registration fee and agree to the terms and conditions of the registrar.
  • Configure your domain: Once your domain is registered, you can configure it for use with your website, email, or other online services.

  • It's important to note that the availability of domain names in Indian languages may vary depending on the script and language. Additionally, Indian language domains may have specific requirements or restrictions, so it's important to check with the registrar or NIXI for more information.

To achieve universal acceptance, it is important for all stakeholders in the Internet ecosystem, including domain name registries, email service providers, application developers, and others, to adopt and implement technical standards that support non-ASCII domain names and email addresses. Additionally, education and awareness-raising efforts can help promote universal acceptance and ensure that users are aware of the options available to them.

The Universal Acceptance (UA) Guidelines are a set of best practices and recommendations for supporting the use of all domain names and email addresses, regardless of their script, language, or format. The guidelines were developed by the Universal Acceptance Steering Group (UASG), a community-led initiative that works to promote Universal Acceptance of all domain names and email addresses.

The UA Guidelines provide detailed recommendations for software and system developers, domain name registries, email service providers, and other stakeholders involved in the management and implementation of Internet systems and applications. The guidelines cover a wide range of topics related to Universal Acceptance, including:

  1. Domain name registration and administration
  2. Email address validation and handling
  3. IDN implementation and support
  4. Web and application development
  5. Testing and validation
  6. User education and awareness

Email address Internationalization (EAI) is the process of allowing email addresses to use non-ASCII characters, such as those used in languages like Hindi, Marathi, Tamil, Bengali, in addition to the traditional ASCII characters used in English-based email addresses. This allows people to use their native language and script to create email addresses, making it easier for them to communicate online.

Universal Acceptance Day is an annual event that takes place on September 1st to raise awareness about the importance of Universal Acceptance (UA) of all domain names and email addresses, regardless of their script, language, or format. The event is organized by the Universal Acceptance Steering Group (UASG), a community-led initiative that works to promote UA and eliminate the digital divide caused by outdated systems that do not support non-ASCII domain names and email addresses. The UASG includes stakeholders from across the Internet ecosystem, including domain name registries, email providers, application developers, and others.

Universal Acceptance (UA) refers to the concept that all domain names, email addresses, and other Internet identifiers should be treated equally and supported by all software applications and systems. It means that all users, regardless of their location, language, or device, should be able to access and use online services and applications without any technical barriers or limitations. The goal of Universal Acceptance is to promote diversity, inclusiveness, and innovation on the Internet by removing technical barriers that can limit the accessibility and functionality of online services and applications for some users.

To get an email ID in Indian languages, you can follow these steps:

  • Choose an email service provider: There are several email service providers that offer support for email IDs in Indian languages, such as Google, Microsoft, and Rediffmail. You can choose an email service provider that offers support for your preferred Indian language.
  • Check the availability of your desired email ID: Once you have chosen an email service provider, you can check if your desired email ID is available in Indian languages. You may need to check the provider's website or contact their support team for more information.
  • Create a new email account: If your desired email ID is available, you can create a new email account with your chosen email service provider. You will need to provide your personal and contact information, as well as choose your desired email ID and language.
  • Configure your email settings: Once your email account is created, you can configure your email settings to suit your preferences, such as setting up filters, forwarding, or other email management options.
  • Start using your email ID: Once your email account is set up and configured, you can start using your email ID in Indian languages for sending and receiving emails.

It's important to note that not all email service providers offer support for email IDs in Indian languages, and the availability of languages may vary depending on the provider. Additionally, some Indian languages may have specific requirements or restrictions, so it's important to check with the email service provider for more information.

Here are some best practices that can help achieve Universal Acceptance:

  • Adopt and implement technical standards: Domain name registries, email service providers, and other Internet stakeholders should adopt and implement technical standards that support non-ASCII domain names and email addresses, such as SMTPUTF8 and IDNA2008.
  • Update software and systems: All software and systems that handle domain names and email addresses should be updated to support non-ASCII characters, including email clients, web browsers, and operating systems.
  • Conduct testing and validation: All systems and applications should be tested and validated to ensure that they support non-ASCII characters and comply with technical standards.
  • Provide education and training: Education and training should be provided to developers, IT professionals, and end-users to raise awareness of Universal Acceptance and ensure that they are familiar with the technical standards and best practices.
  • Engage with communities: Domain name registries, email service providers, and other Internet stakeholders should engage with local communities and language groups to understand their needs and promote the use of non-ASCII domain names and email addresses.
  • Advocate for Universal Acceptance: Governments, NGOs, and other stakeholders should advocate for Universal Acceptance and encourage its adoption by all Internet stakeholders.

This depends on the email clients and servers in use. While the SMTP protocol supports UTF-8, not all email systems may handle IDNs properly. Test thoroughly before using an IDN email address in a production environment.

Internationalization is the process of designing a software application so it can be adapted to various languages and regions without engineering changes. Localization is the process of adapting the internationalized software for a specific region or language by adding locale-specific components and translating text.

Allow for a wide range of character inputs in forms, especially for names, addresses, and phone numbers.

Avoid strict validation rules that assume formats from specific countries (e.g., ZIP code formats, phone number lengths).

Use internationalisation libraries or frameworks to handle various input formats and validate them appropriately.

Many programming languages offer libraries that support IDN and Punycode conversions (e.g., idna library in Python).

Use internationalization frameworks (like ICU or those included in modern web development frameworks) that provide broader support for international text, including IDNs.

When storing Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) in a database:

Unicode Format: Store the IDNs in Unicode format to preserve the original characters accurately. This ensures that you retain the intended representation of the domain name.
Punycode Equivalent: Additionally, store the Punycode equivalent of the IDNs. Punycode is a standard for representing Unicode characters using only the ASCII character set. This is necessary for DNS lookups and other technical operations, as many systems may not support Unicode directly.

A domain name is a unique address that identifies a website on the internet. It is a string of characters that is used to locate and access a specific website. For example, an IDN domain name might look like सीडैक.भारत using Devanagari script, which translates to "cdac.in" in English.

A domain name is made up of two parts: the top-level domain (TLD) and the second-level domain (SLD). The TLD is the part of the domain name that comes after the last dot, such as ".in", ".com", ".org", or ".net".

Note: The Domain Name ".Bharat" Is A Country-Code Top-Level Domain (ccTLDs) For India And Is Used Specifically For Domain Names In Indian Scripts.

Indian Language Domain Names Can Provide Benefits Such As Increased Accessibility, Better User Experience, Increased Relevance To Specific Language Groups, And Improved Brand Awareness.

To bridge the digital divide and make the internet more accessible to citizens not knowing English or those who prefer to interact / communicate in the local language.

An Indian Language Domain Name Is A Domain Name Written In One Of The Many Official Languages Of India, Such As Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Etc., Instead Of English. It Allows Internet Users In India To Access Websites And Resources Using Domain Names In Their Own Language, Making It Easier For Them To Find And Use The Information They Need.

An Indian Language Domain Name Is Mapped To An IP Address Just Like Any Other Domain Name, And Works Similarly To Access Resources On The Internet.

An Example Of An Indian Language Domain Name Could Be "उदाहरण.भारत" (Which Translates To "Example.Bharat" In English) Written In Devanagari Script, Which Is Used For Several Indian Languages, Including Hindi. This Domain Name Could Be Used To Access A Website Or Resource In Hindi Or Any Other Language Using The Devanagari Script.

The Indian ccTLDs are domain extensions that are designated for India. The two-letter ccTLD for India is ".in". There are also several other ccTLDs designated for specific Indian territories, such as ".co.in" for commercial websites, ".gov.in" for Indian government entities, and ".nic.in" for National Informatics Centre websites. These ccTLDs are managed by the National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI), which is a non-profit organization established by the Indian government to manage and operate the .in ccTLD and promote the growth of the Internet in India.

1. Your website server needs to accept requests coming for the UNICODE / Punycode

2. All major web-servers provide support to point multiple websites to same code

3. Webmaster have to write routing rules to map the incoming punycode to the existing site or corresponding Indian language website as per your business needs

To Configure An Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) In Indian Languages, You Will Need To:

Register a domain name in IDN: Choose a domain name that uses characters from an Indian script such as Devanagari, Tamil, Bengali, or other regional scripts, and register it with an accredited registrar that supports IDN registration for Indian languages.

Check your system's language settings: Ensure that your system's language settings are set to support Indian languages. Install fonts and other necessary language packs to correctly display Indian language characters.

Configure your web server: Configure your web server to support IDNs by using Punycode encoding to represent the IDN domain name in the DNS, setting the default character set to Unicode (UTF-8), and enabling IDN support in your web server's settings.

Test your website: Test your website to ensure that it is working properly. Check to see if your IDN domain name is correctly displayed in the web browser and test all links and functionality on the website.

Promote UA awareness: Promote the adoption of IDNs in Indian languages by encouraging users to use IDNs when registering domain names or visiting websites.

NIXI and ICANN are two organizations that are involved in managing the Internet and its resources, although they have different roles and responsibilities.

NIXI, or the National Internet Exchange of India, is a non-profit organization that manages the .IN ccTLD (country code top-level domain) for India. NIXI is responsible for coordinating and managing the registration and administration of .IN domain names, as well as promoting the use and development of the Internet in India.

ICANN, or the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, is a global non-profit organization that is responsible for coordinating the Internet's unique identifiers, including domain names, IP addresses, and protocol parameters. ICANN's responsibilities include managing the global domain name system (DNS), accrediting and overseeing domain name registrars and registries, and coordinating policy development related to the Internet's technical infrastructure.

While NIXI is primarily focused on managing the .IN ccTLD and promoting the use of the Internet in India, ICANN has a global mandate to manage and coordinate the Internet's unique identifiers. Both organizations play important roles in the management and development of the Internet, and work closely with other stakeholders to ensure that the Internet remains open, accessible, and secure for all users.

Multilingual Internet refers to the use of multiple languages on the internet to create, share, and consume digital content, allowing people from different linguistic backgrounds to communicate and access information online in their native language or a language they are comfortable with. For example, a website that offers its content in multiple languages such as Hindi, Telugu, Gujarati ,English, Tamil and Marathi is a good example of the Multilingual Internet. Another example is the use of multilingual chatbots or virtual assistants that can understand and respond to queries in different languages.

Universal Acceptance is the ability of the Internet to accept all valid domain names and Email addresses, regardless of the characters used in them.

A Universal Acceptance Event is a gathering focused on Promoting the concept of Universal Acceptance, which is the Idea that all Domain Names and Email Addresses, regardless Of their Script Or Language, should be treated equally and accessible to everyone on the Internet.

The Indian Government Plays an Important role in Promoting Universal Acceptance (UA) in India through Its Ministry Of Electronics And Information Technology (MeitY) and The National Internet Exchange Of India (NIXI). MeitY and NIXI are both Members Of UA-India Program, and Work to Promote UA by Raising Awareness about Its Importance, and by providing Technical and Policy support to Help Organisations Implement UA-Compatible Systems and Services. The Indian Government also Collaborates with International Organisations, such as ICANN, to help Advance UA on a Global Level.